Urinary tract infections

Les infections urinaires sont assez fréquentes en cours de grossesse. En effet les différentes modifications (hormonales, anatomiques…) liées à la grossesse favorisent leur survenue.

Le risque d'infection urinaire en cours de grossesse est augmenté en cas notamment  d’antécédent d'infection urinaire, ou d’un diabète antérieur à la grossesse.

Urinary tract infections : What are they ? 

There are different types of urinary tract infections :

_The term urinary colonisation refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine in the absence of clinical signs suggestive of urinary tract infection (urinary burning, frequent urination).

The frequency is estimated at 2-10%. As complications (pyelonephritis) are possible, it is recommended to screen for colonisation by urine analysis.

_ Acute pregnancy cystitis is estimated to be between 1% and 2%. The diagnosis is based on the presence of suggestive clinical signs (urinary burning, frequent urination) and a urine examination which will show the presence of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine.

The treatment of acute pregnancy cystitis requires the use of antibiotics.

 

What are the risks ?

In rarer cases, the urinary tract infection can be more serious because it can reach the kidneys, we speak of pyelonephritis. In this case, the clinical signs are those of cystitis with additional signs (lower back pain and fever).

The diagnosis will also require a urine test for bacteria and white blood cells and will be completed by a blood test for infection markers. An ultrasound scan is also recommended.

An initial hospitalisation is usually necessary in order to monitor the mother-to-be and the baby as best as possible as there is a risk of prematurity.
 

How is the screening carried out ? 

Screening is done by a simple laboratory urine test during the diagnosis of a UTI.

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